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I have issued my Claim-What next?

Once you have issued your claim, within 14 days of receiving (being ‘served’ with) your particulars of your claim, the defendant must send to the court (called ‘filing’) either: If you issued your claim through money claim on line you will be able to access there. an...

Offers to Settle

Court rules allow a party to litigation to make an offer to settle the claim at any stage of the proceedings. Indeed you will be encouraged throughout to make an offer to settle the claim and agree an out of court settlement. There is no need to pay the money offered...

Acceptance of contracts

For a contract to be legally binding there must be clear acceptance of the contract and an intention to be legally bound. The three elements of a valid contract-offer, acceptance and consideration -must be present. Unless it is shown that there was an acceptance of an...

Bankruptcy and Divorce

Bankruptcy, financial difficulties, divorce and the breakdown of a marriage often run together. It is very far from unknown for one of the spouses to be facing bankruptcy at the time of a divorce. So what would be the effect of a bankruptcy order on the financial...

Payment of Judgement Debts

When a case is lost, and you are ordered to pay a  judgment together most probably with legal costs, the usual order will usually be for payment within 14 days. But what if you do not have the money to pay the judgment debt and cannot pay? This will very often be the...
Drafting a Statement of Claim

Drafting a Statement of Claim

Your Particulars of Claim is the document which sets out what you are claiming and gives details of why you say you are entitled to a judgment from the court. It is sometimes called the Statement of Claim or Points of Claim which are the same thing.  The particulars...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Pre-action protocols are contained within the Civil Procedure Rules and set out the steps the court expect parties to take before commencing proceedings for a particular type of claim. The protocols do not have the status of court rules but should be followed whenever...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Delay in Inheritance Act Applications

The Inheritance Act (or the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependents) Act 1975, to give it its full title) was passed to help spouses, children, civil partners, cohabitees and other surviving dependents who have been left to cope without sufficient money to...

The Family Pets on Divorce

Lawyers will tell you that when a relationship breaks down it is usually money and children which cause the arguments. That may well be the case, but emotional issues and heated exchanges can also revolve around who is to have the family pets. Battles over with which...

The Family Business on Divorce

A family business is a family asset, and as such will fall into the 'pot' for division on divorce. At one time the courts were reluctant to order a sale of a business. If the business produced  income needed by the parties, they would try to leave it intact in the...

Divorce mistakes

Things can go wrong with a divorce through mistakes even where it seems there is agreement that the marriage is over and there is no dispute over who gets what. There are a number of mistakes which are commonly made which can lead to problems.  We signpost them here....

Financial Settlements on Divorce

Issuing a divorce petition will only result in having the marriage dissolved. The divorce action commenced with the filing of the divorce petition does not enable the court to decide financial matters which are separate and ancillary to the divorce. A further...

Nullity of Marriage

Nullity is the historic remedy for a bad marriage, much favoured by Henry VIII. It is a claim that the marriage should be annulled, declared a nullity and not to have happened, as it has not met the legal criteria for a marriage. A nullity petition maybe presented on,...
Consent Orders

Consent Orders

A consent order is an order of the court in terms which the parties have agreed and asked the court to give legal affect. It can be applied for on divorce or dissolution of a civil partnership when financial issues are agreed between the parties. It will often...

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Dividing Property Yourself on Divorce

Dividing Property Yourself on Divorce

For most couples, splitting up your possessions is a big part of the process of getting divorced. The best way is for you and your spouse to sit down and decide together who gets what.  If you can't do that a judge will have to divide it up for you. It’s best to...

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Financial Settlements on Divorce

Financial Settlements on Divorce

Issuing a divorce petition will only result in having the marriage dissolved. The divorce action commenced with the filing of the divorce petition does not enable the court to decide financial matters which are separate and ancillary to the divorce. A further...

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Business Law

Acceptance of contracts

For a contract to be legally binding there must be clear acceptance of the contract and an intention to be legally bound. The three elements of a valid contract-offer, acceptance and consideration -must be present. Unless it is shown that there was an acceptance of an...

Business Disputes

Business Disputes Disputes with suppliers, customers, competitors and with partners or shareholders are an unfortunate part of business life. They are potentially expensive and time consuming and can grow out of all proportion if not managed properly. Above all they...

Tips when making a business agreement

When you are in business you need to know how to make a business agreement. You will be entering into business contracts and buying and selling goods and services. Well drafted business contracts prevent disputes and misunderstandings and are essential if your...

Misrepresentation and the Misrepresentation Act 1967

A misrepresentation is an untrue statement of fact made by one party to the other, which induces and misleads that party to enter into a contract. Misrepresentation must be of fact, not of opinion or intention. Silence in itself can be regarded as a misrepresentation....

Assigning a contract

A contract is assigned when one of the parties transfers their rights and obligations under the contract to another. For the assignment of a contract to be effective however the other party to the contract must be informed and agree. Contracts are usually assigned in...
Does an employment contract have to be in writing?

Does an employment contract have to be in writing?

An employment contract is no different from any other contract in that most do not have to be in writing to be legally valid and enforceable. If you are offered employment, accept and then start work a valid contract has been created between you and your employer even...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Business Disputes

Business Disputes Disputes with suppliers, customers, competitors and with partners or shareholders are an unfortunate part of business life. They are potentially expensive and time consuming and can grow out of all proportion if not managed properly. Above all they...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Freehold or Leasehold

Freehold and leasehold are two different types of property ownership in the UK. Anyone considering buying a property here will need to know the meanings of both terms, as there are considerably different obligations and privileges bestowed upon the owner in each....

Employment Law

Third-Party Dismissals

What happens if you are an employer and a third-party demands that you dismiss one of your employees? This situation may well arise if you are supplying workers under a service contract and are told by your customer that you will lose the contract unless you remove...

Statutory Redundancy Payments

What do you do if your employer closes down, you are made redundant, and your employer either can’t or won’t pay you the redundancy pay that you’re owed? In these circumstances you can apply to the National Insurance Fund to pay either the whole or part of the...

Money Received by Mistake

A person who receives money as the result of a mistake made by someone else is not entitled to keep the money. The position with money paid by mistake is much the same as if you find a £20 note in the street. The money received by mistake does not belong to you as it...

Vicarious Liability

Vicarious liability is where someone is held legally responsible for the acts or omissions of someone else. Therefore vicarious liability can make an employer strictly liable for the acts and failures of an employee if these took place in the course of their...

Employment References – When Are Employers Liable?

An employee may need a reference from an old employer to help secure future employment or may require a reference for personal matters, such as to provide to a landlord or for a mortgage application. An employer is not obliged to provide you with a reference when you...
Stress at Work

Stress at Work

Work can be stressful, but sometimes it is unduly so. Where a workload and demands placed by an employer on an employee are excessive, there is a duty upon that employer to take action to remedy the situation. If they do not do so, the employee may be entitled to...

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Lies, White Lies and Your CV

Lies, White Lies and Your CV

In a competitive jobs market, people tend to think ‘does a little white lie in my CV matter if it helps me get the job?’. The answer to this is that it very well could, and the consequences could very well be serious. Your CV may well be a critical document when the...

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Health and Safety at Work

Health and Safety at Work

The law imposes a responsibility on an employer to ensure the health and safety at work for all their employees. Much of the law regarding safety in the work place can be found in the Health & Safety At Work Act 1974. Employers have to take reasonable steps to...

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Property Law

Tenancy Deposit Protection Scheme

Landlords or their agents who take a deposit from a tenant must have that deposit protected under one of two schemes: A custodial scheme - this is where the deposit is held in an approved scheme during the deposit, and will continue to be held if any legal dispute...

Abandoned Goods

What are you to do if someone has left their property with you or on your premises and do not remove it although you have asked them to do so? This is a problem often facing landlords when a tenant moves out leaving some of their possessions behind, although it can...

Obtaining Possession of Rented Property

A landlord wishing to recover possession of his property must follow the correct legal procedure. If he attempts to evict a tenant otherwise, he may be guilty of a criminal offence and could be ordered to pay substantial damages. Most private sector tenancies will be...

Housing Repair Claims

If you are a tenant whose landlord has failed or is refusing to carry out necessary repairs to your home having been informed of the problem your first step should be complaining to your local council. They have a statutory duty to investigate cases of disrepair and...

How to Avoid (or at Least Delay) Mortgage Repossession

If you are facing repossession, realistically assess whether you are able to keep your home. When you have missed some mortgage payments, or you think you will soon, it’s time to face what’s probably the tough question: can you afford to keep your house? Apart from...
Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Property Law Covenants

Property covenants are promises that come with a property, are attached to it, and bind the present owner of the property . The most common types of covenants are restrictive covenants. A restrictive covenant is a promise attached to the land which binds the owner for...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Part 36 and offers to Settle

Either party may offer to settle the case at any time, up until when the judge makes his ruling. The CPR encourage offers of settlement to be made, and if offers are made in accordance with the rules there can be very significant costs savings for the party making the...

Pre-action protocols and letters of claim

Public Landlords and Council Tenants

A public landlord will include local authorities, district councils and most housing associations. A council tenant will be a person who takes a tenancy from any of these. There are two main types of council tenancy: secure and introductory. Where a tenancy agreement...

Inheritance Law

Help for Those Who Cannot Help Themselves

What would happen if you became unable to understand and deal with your business and financial affairs through ill-health or incapacity? How would you know that someone could be appointed to step in and manage your affairs for you? Who is there to protect and promote...

I’m dying and when I’m gone everything is yours

To pass on your estate when you die you must make a Will which must be properly executed. It has to be written, dated and signed in the presence of witnesses. The Law is quite clear in that. Sometimes however a person facing imminent death may not have made a Will or...

Loss of a Partner. Who Can Claim?

Nasty shocks can be in store for cohabitees when one of the partners dies without making a will. The late partner’s estate will not automatically pass to them in the absence of a will made in favour of the survivor. The rules of intestacy will be applied, which will...

What is probate?

When a person dies somebody has to deal with their estate (the money, property and possessions left) by collecting in all the money, paying any debts and distributing the estate to those people entitled to it. The term 'probate' means the issuing of a legal document...

Delay in Inheritance Act Applications

The Inheritance Act (or the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependents) Act 1975, to give it its full title) was passed to help spouses, children, civil partners, cohabitees and other surviving dependents who have been left to cope without sufficient money to...
Joint and Mutual Wills. Pros and Cons.

Joint and Mutual Wills. Pros and Cons.

A joint Will is a single Will made by two people which deals with the estates of both of them. Usually it will leave everything to the other on the first death and then to agreed beneficiaries on the death of the survivor. Mutual or Mirror wills are where the parties...

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Who Can Decide Where You End Up?

Who Can Decide Where You End Up?

Most people when making their will include a statement of their wishes as to what they would like to be done with their 'mortal remains'. They might say that they wish to be buried, cremated, or even sometimes buried at sea or to have their ashes scattered at a...

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When to Change Your Will

When to Change Your Will

It's time to write a new will if you're experiencing a big change in your life, such as moving, getting married or divorced, moving in with a new partner, or bringing a new baby into the family. Your will should be tailored to your current family and financial...

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